Since the mid-1940s, the International Olympic Committee and the International Association of Athletics Federations have been trying to define who was and who wasn't 'woman enough' to compete in the Olympics.
The public scrutiny and humiliation of an athlete's gender is often damaging. Many female Olympic-hopefuls were threatened with being banned from the Games, unless they underwent surgery or hormone therapy to 'normalize' themselves.
One Olympian, Dutee Chand, took the International Association of Athletics Federation to court when her gender was called into question. The case caused international outcry and the Court of Arbitration for Sport suspended the practice. Dr. Payoshni Mitra advised Chand, and joins us to discuss the past of sex testing and present gender scrutiny.