Beware the Light Box Effect — and Other Secrets of NYC's Microclimates

Tuesday, August 26, 2014

Brian Vant-Hull, a research scientist at City College, in East Harlem, which he says is one of Manhattan's warmest neighborhoods. (Matthew Schuerman/WNYC)

Over the last two summers, teams of students fanned out across Manhattan carrying equipment that looked half high-tech, half dime-store. They carried expensive, hand-held devices in their hands connected to a supersensitive thermometer that hung off their backpacks. In order to keep the thermometers from being overly affected by the sunlight, however, they were covered by Styrofoam cups and mounted on pieces of cardboard wrapped in white paper.

The research was all part of a project to map and understand the city’s “microclimates”: how temperatures vary from one neighborhood to another depending on elevation, building type and other factors.

None of these elements make more than a few degree Fahrenheit difference by themselves. But Brian Vant-Hull, the research scientist at the City College of New York leading the project, said that understanding these minor variations could be a life or death issue.

“It turns out that mortality during a heat wave is a very sensitive function of temperature,” said Vant-Hull, who is also affiliated with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. “Just a one or two degrees difference can make a significant impact from neighborhood to neighborhood.”

Heat can be deadly and some research suggests that the difference between 99 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit could translate into a difference of roughly 1.5 percent in the city’s mortality rate. The theory is, if 300 people die a year in heat-related deaths in New York City, getting people to slightly cooler locations, or increasing air-conditioning in chronically-warm neighborhoods, could save potentially dozens of lives.

Vant-Hull’s team has not completed crunching its data, much less published its findings, but so far has come up with some rules of thumb:

  • Streets lined with dark brownstones tend to be warmer than streets with lighter buildings.
  • Parts of Manhattan that are at low elevations, such as the Lower East Side and East Harlem, are warmer than those up on hills, such as the Upper East Side, by as much as 3 to 4 degrees on hot days.
  • Tall buildings along north-south avenues, such as in Midtown, create a “light box,” whereby sunlight is reflected down into the avenues and intensifies the warmth. The "light box effect” is especially pronounced at 1:30 p.m., because that’s when the sun shines most directly into the avenues.
  • East-west cross streets are as much as 1.5 degrees cooler because they are in the shade half the time. (Thank the north-south orientation of the Manhattan street grid for that.)



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Comments [4]


Since when is City College in east Harlem? Caption on photo is incorrect. Morningside more like...

Aug. 27 2014 10:37 AM
Joe Kelvin is a Moron from New York, NY

"What happens during a heat wave is that people who were already dying are spared the torture of a hospital death, and instead go quietly in their sleep."

So you approve of heat waves because they kill the elderly? lol you are an idiot.

Aug. 27 2014 09:14 AM
Joe Kelvin from NYC

Sorry, the piece loses all credibility with the "few degrees between life and death" link-bait.

People without severe medical issues are not dying in the streets or in their apartments during the city's ordinary heat waves (which took a blessed vacation this summmer). There are public buildings with AC open to the elderly during every heat wave.
If you can survive an indoor temp of 90 but will die at 92, then you were very close to death at 90.What happens during a heat wave is that people who were already dying are spared the torture of a hospital death, and instead go quietly in their sleep.

I happen to have a rare medical condition and can't tolerate heat. When I go outside on a fine summer day, even sunny and 80F with modest humidity, I'm knocked out for several hours afterwards. Should I stay out for over an hour, I'm out for several days. When I tried doing without an AC (I thought a fan would do... NOT), I went downhill enough that I couldn't digest food properly and was so exhausted it took 3 tries to make coffee - grind the beans, lie down, put coffee in machine add water and push switch, lie down, then finally get up, pour coffee and drink.
But that is a --rare-- condition. A couple degrees makes no difference, the basic problem is my system is broken.

The mortality rate is 100%, you are going to die at some point. It's not optional and filing away at trivial stresses means only that you'll live long enough to die slowly.

Aug. 26 2014 04:41 PM
Donald Diamond

Everyone forgets that the tempature was recorded from Battery Park before they moved it to get a reading that eliminated the water's effect on the temperature.

Aug. 26 2014 09:26 AM

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