America’s Shadow Wars

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Deniable covert operations are not new—they’ve been ordered by every president and every administration since the World War II. In many instances covert operations have relied on surrogates, with American personnel involved only at a distance, insulated by layers of deniability. Larry Hancock and Stuart Wexler trace the evolution of these covert operations from the Truman era through the Obama Administration. Their book Shadow Warfare: The History of America’s Undeclared Wars also explores relationship between the CIA and the military.