Footnotes for David Evan's Piece on Marijuana Legalization

These are the sources cited in David Evan's contribution to the Wonk Wars discussion on marijuana legalization.

[FN1]; The Occurrence of Cannabis Use Disorders and Other Cannabis Related Problems Among First Year College Students, Addictive Behaviors 33(3):397-411, March 2008;Compton, Dewey & Martin, Cannabis dependence and tolerance production, Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse 1990:9:129-147; Miller & Gold, The diagnosis of marijuana cannabis dependence, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 1989:6:183-192; Clayton & Leukefeld, The prevention of drug use among youth: implications' of legalization, Journal of Prevention 1992:12:289-302; Kaplan, Martin, Johnson & Robbins, Escalation of marijuana use: Application of a general theory of deviant behavior, Journal of Health and Social Behavior 1986:27:44-61; Bailey, Flewelling & Rachal, Predicting continued use of marijuana among adolescents: the relative influence of drug-specific and social context factors, Journal of Health and Social Behavior 1992:33:51-66;  Regular or Heavy Use of Cannabis Was Associated with Increased Risk of Using Other Illicit Drugs  Addiction, 2006; 101:556-569;  As Marijuana Use Rises, More People Are Seeking Treatment for Addiction  -Wall Street Journal, 2 May 2006;  Twenty-Five Year Longitudinal Study Affirms Link Between Marijuana Use and Other Illicit Drug Use  - Congress of the United States,14 March 2006;  New Study Reveals Marijuana is Addictive and Users Who Quit Experience Withdrawal - All Headline News, 6 February 2007;  Cannabis Withdrawal Among Non-Treatment-Seeking Adult Cannabis Users  -The American Journal on Addiction, 2006; 15:8-14;  Escalation of Drug Use in Early Onset Cannabis Users Vs. Co-twin Controls  - Journal of the American Medical Association, 2003; 289:4

[FN2]  New Report Finds Highest-Ever Levels of THC in US Marijuana, June 12, 2008,

[FN3] The Netherlands Drug Situation 2007 - National Drug Monitor, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction 2008, pgs. 107 and 108

[FN4] Non-medical Marijuana: Rite of Passage or Russian Roulette?  July 1999 obtained at website; The Occurrence of Cannabis Use Disorders and Other Cannabis Related Problems Among First Year College Students, Addictive Behaviors 33(3):397-411, March 2008.

[FN5] What Americans Need to Know about Marijuana.  Office of National Drug Control Policy. October 2003. Page 9.; The DEA Position On Marijuana,

[FN6]  Birth Defects - Risk of Selected Birth Defects with Prenatal Illicit Drug Use, Hawaii, 1986-2002, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 70: 7-18, 2007

Pain -  Too Much Cannabis Worsens Pain  - BBC News, 24 October 2007;  Study Finds that Marijuana Won't Stop Multiple Sclerosis Pain - Neurology, 2002; 58:1404-1407

Respiratory System Damage -  Marijuana Associated with Same Respiratory Symptoms as Tobacco,  YALE News Release. 13 January 2005. (14 January 2005); Marijuana Smoke Contains Higher Levels of Certain Toxins Than Tobacco Smoke, Science Daily, December 18, 2007; Marijuana Smokers Face Rapid Lung Destruction - As Much as 20 Years Ahead of Tobacco Smokers, Science Daily, January 27, 2008;  Respiratory and Immunologic Consequences of Marijuana Smoking - Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 2002; 42:71S-81S

Cancer -  Association Between Marijuana Use and Transitional Cell Carcinoma - Adult Urology, 2006; 100-104

AIDS/HIV -  Marijuana Component Opens The Door For Virus That Causes Kaposi's Sarcoma  -Science Daily, 2 August 2007

Brain Damage -  Neurotoxicology; Neurocognitive Effects of Chronic Marijuana Use Characterized.  Health & Medicine Week. 16 May 2005;  Marijuana May Affect Blood Flow in Brain  - Reuters, 7 February 2005;

Strokes -  More Evidence Ties Marijuana to Stroke Risk  - Reuters Health, 22 February 2005

Immune System Damage -  Immunological Changes Associated with Prolonged Marijuana Smoking  -American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, 17 November 2004

Mental Illness, Schizophrenia, Depression - Kearney, Simon.  Cannabis is Worst Drug for Psychosis.  The Australian. 21 November 2005; Curtis, John.  Study Suggests Marijuana Induces Temporary Schizophrenia-Like Effects.  Yale Medicine. Fall/Winter 2004;  Cannabis-Related Schizophrenia Set to Rise, Say Researchers  - Science Daily, 26 March 2007;  Report: Using Pot May Heighten Risk of Becoming Psychotic  - Associated Press, 26 July 2007;  Marijuana Linked to Schizophrenia, Depression  - British Medical Journal, 21 November 2007;  Anterior Cingulate Grey-Matter Deficits and Cannabis Use in First-Episode Schizophrenia  The British Journal of Psychiatry, 2007; 190: 230-236; Marijuana Increases the Risk of Both Psychosis In Non-Psychotic People As Well As Poor Prognosis For Those With Risk of Vulnerability to Pyschoses  American Journal of Epidemiology, 2002; 156:319-327; Psychophysiological Evidence of Altered Neural Synchronization in Cannabis Use: Relationship to Schizotypy  Am J Psychiatry, 2006; 163:1798-1805

Violence -  Cannabis 'Linked to Aggression'  - News, Press Association 2006;  Marijuana Had a Greater Effect on Increasing the Degree of Violent Behavior in Non-Delinquent Individuals Than in Delinquent Individuals  - J Addict. Dis. 2003; 22:63-78

Infertility -  Marijuana Firmly Linked to Infertility  - Scientific American, 22 December 2000

Hepatitis -  Clinical Gastroenterology and  Hepatology 2008, Vol. 6, No.1, pages 69-75, captioned  Influence of Cannabis use on Severity of Hepatitis C Disease