Deadly Topography: The Staten Island Neighborhood Where 11 Died During Sandy

Monday, February 25, 2013

The stories that people tell about fleeing from Sandy’s surge in one section of Staten Island's Eastern Shore all sound alike: the water came all at once, and gave little advance notice.

“It happened so fast that we just had to get up the stairs and tell everybody else that we were flooding, because they didn’t even know,” said Kristina Zakarya, who was getting ready to watch a movie on the ground floor of her mother’s house in Midland Beach.

A friend who was with her, Nick Duggan, added: “I had a sweatshirt, my shoes and my wallet and my phone, and I only grabbed my wallet and my phone.”

A few blocks away, on Quincy Street in an adjoining neighborhood known as Ocean Breeze, Mike Taurozzi got a phone call from a neighbor warning him to move his car to higher ground.

“By the time I came back down,” he recalled, “it was already a foot and a half, just from moving the car.”

These people all stayed until the last minute. They were disobeying Mayor Michael Bloomberg’s order to evacuate Zone A areas. Many of them say they were worried about their houses getting looted, which happened when people evacuated for Tropical Storm Irene in 2011.

But not everybody who stayed behind got away: Some 11 people drowned in or near their homes in Midland Beach, Ocean Breeze and part of Dongan Hills. Two children—2-year-old Brendan Moore and his 4-year-old brother Connor—also drowned at the edge of this area, after the SUV their mother was driving stalled and flood waters overcame them.

The square mile bounded by Midland Avenue, Father Capodanno Boulevard, Seaview Avenue and Hylan Boulevard turned out to be the most dangerous place to be in New York City the night of Sandy, in terms of deaths.

It also is a topographical “bowl”: the streets are several feet below Father Capodanno Boulevard, the thoroughfare that separates the neighborhood from the Atlantic Ocean.

Sandy brought with it an exceptionally high storm tide that reached almost 14 feet at Manhattan’s Battery. But it was a relatively slow-moving storm, and the water level rose gradually.

Phil Orton, a research scientist at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, analyzed U.S. Geological Survey data and found that even at the peak of the storm, the water at the edge of Staten Island rose by just about 2 feet an hour.

But that surge would not have reached the streets of Midland Beach until after the water exceeded the level of Father Capodanno Boulevard. Only when the water overtopped the boulevard, as it did at about 6:30 p.m. Oct. 29—the night of Sandy—would people notice it. And, while it is difficult to know exactly what led to any individual victim's death, the rush of water appears to have caught people off guard.

“Then you have a whole ocean pouring into your neighborhood in minutes,” Orton said,  “and it can be much more dangerous.”

If you are having trouble imagining what happened, take a heavy mixing bowl from your kitchen and put it in your bathtub. Fill up the bathtub while holding down the bowl, so it doesn’t float away. The water rises gradually outside the bowl, while the inside stays dry. But once the water level reaches the lip, it will come rushing into the bowl.

The area was once wetlands that has been gradually populated over the past century, according to Alan Benimoff, a lecturer at College of Staten Island.

“People used to come down here from the hills and so forth and use their beach cottages in the summer,” he said. “Obviously what has happened here, a lot of these cottages were turned into year-round homes.”

Now about 2,000 homes are located in the square mile area, spread among the remnants of those older wetlands and the Staten Island Blue Belt, a natural storm drainage system developed by the city’s Department of Environmental Protection.

Long-time residents say, back in the 1950s, Father Capodanno Boulevard (then called Seaside Boulevard, and later named after a chaplain killed in Vietnam) was bulked up along with the beach. Benimoff said the neighborhood was flooded by more minor storms before that happened.

Some residents are questioning whether anyone should live in a neighborhood as vulnerable to flooding as this one. In order to rebuild above flood level, some homeowners will have to elevate their first floors by 10 feet or more up into the air. They say they would rather be bought out by the government and have their property turned into open space. But that process can be lengthy.

One of the Ocean Breeze residents who died the night of Sandy was James Rossi. He was 85, and lived next door to Mike Taurozzi.  

“I don’t know why he stayed. I don’t know what the story was. But he told us he was leaving. He actually moved his car,” Taurozzi said. “At his age, I don’t think he had much of a chance, honestly. The current was going directly for his house.”

Share: If you lived in this neighborhood, would you stay? If your home was destroyed, would you rebuild? Let us know in the comments below.

Matthew Schuerman/WNYC
Alan Benimoff, a geologist at the College of Staten Island, on Iona Street, which is inside the topographical "bowl."
Benimoff on Peggy Lane, demonstrating the topographical "bowl." The street slopes upward toward Father Capodanno Boulevard, and the Atlantic Ocean beyond.
 Midland Beach, Staten Island. The house will not be eligible for state buyouts, but indivdiual homes may qualify under another program.
Matthew Schuerman/WNYC
A house in Midland Beach, Staten Island. The house will not be eligible for state buyouts, but indivdiual homes may qualify under another program.
Matthew Schuerman/WNYC
The site where Mike Taurozzi's home once stood. It was demolished after Sandy. All that's left is a storage shed.
Matthew Schuerman/WNYC
The beach houses are set on low foundations, and pre-date federal flood insurance programs prompted better building practices.
Matthew Schuerman/WNYC
The site of a home in Midland Beach, Staten Island, that was so damaged by Sandy it was later demolished.
Flooding is common in the Midland Beach bowl even during non-hurrciane events. This street was impassable by pedestrians after the snow that fell in Feburary melted.
Matthew Schuerman/WNYC
Flooding is common along parts of the coast even when a hurricane is not passing through. Above, a street in Midland Beach after snow melted last winter.
Grimsby Street
Matthew Schuerman/WNYC
The spot where one of Sandy's victims, Betty Spagnuolo, 79, drowned in her home.
Matthew Schuerman/WNYC
On Patterson Avenue in Midland Beach


Karen Frillmann


More in:

Comments [8]

davie from New Jersey

If this area of Staten island was properly protected by a sea wall at the time residential units were built we would not be conversing about this subject. You cannot expect builders to respect wetlands they need to be forced to make infrastructure improvements as part of their project.

Feb. 28 2013 10:16 PM
Susan from Wyckoff, New Jersey

In Kansas City, in the an exclusive, upscale shopping district, the Country Club Plaza, was created from Brush Creek Valley, a swampy land mostly used for pig farms. On September 12, 1977, a major flood of Brush Creek caused severe damage to the Plaza and resulted in a number of deaths. The flood prompted a vast renovation and revitalization of the area by the Army Corps of Engineers that has allowed it not only to survive but to thrive.
Simply stated, perhaps this is different in that, there is no ocean to overwhelm the area. However, the major improvements in the creek bed provided a huge place to contain floodwaters and protect the surrounding area from flooding again

Feb. 27 2013 08:24 AM

The wetlands around our coast are meant to be Mother Nature's buffer from flooding. It is so sad, but they were never meant to be "developed".

Feb. 27 2013 06:33 AM

Our church group from Manhattan helped on Staten Island on 12/29, only 2 months after Sandy. We saw the devastated houses on the wetlands streets, and yes, the full moon tide was coming right up again under what was left of those beach homes. No one can live there now until high dunes (with old subway cars and Christmas trees?) are built and the wetlands drained so the water will not rise under any new houses. Tragic for those who have lived there for so many years. And truly tragic that so many of the Staten Islanders that died were seniors.

Feb. 26 2013 10:01 PM

Bill Nye explains the wetlands in a way that shows you should stop building on them. These people should probably be relocated like the people whose houses are build on flood plains.

Feb. 26 2013 06:48 PM

Almost four months after Hurricane Sandy, many New Yorkers & New Jerseyans are still struggling with difficult emotions- like anxiety, problems sleeping, and other depression-like symptoms. FYI the Disaster Distress Helpline is a program of SAMHSA that offers 24/7/365 crisis counseling and support & can connect callers and texters to local services for additional follow-up care & support. Visit to learn more & how to get help!

Feb. 25 2013 05:18 PM

I worked in October 2003 on an archeology survey for the Army Corps of Engineers, by Panamerican Consultants, Inc., (their Buffalo, NY office) done by law, to precede the building of storm wall placements and flood buffer areas along the shore. We shovel-tested from "South Beach" south to "Oakwood Beach" and the sewerage treatment plant there next to "Great Kills Park". Other areas, around Floyd Bennett Field and Gateway National Park were called off. I was surprised by the flooding tragedies that took place where I had once worked thinking, perhaps, the rest of the process had been accomplished. The Army Corps' NE headquarters are nearby at Fort Hamilton, Brooklyn, the "Parade Field" there I've also shovel-tested. Who or what stopped it, I wonder? Perhaps WNYC could inquire.

Feb. 25 2013 03:55 PM

I've been volunteering in these neighborhoods since the storm. I was just there on Saturday; in some areas it looks like Sandy could've happened a week ago. It's still a mess. You can tell this was once all wetlands. I have a lot of empathy for the people who live there but I'm afraid rebuilding is a losing battle. Water will seek its level and Mother Nature will win in the end.

Feb. 25 2013 11:06 AM

Leave a Comment

Email addresses are required but never displayed.

Get the WNYC Morning Brief in your inbox.
We'll send you our top 5 stories every day, plus breaking news and weather.


Latest Newscast




WNYC is supported by the Charles H. Revson Foundation: Because a great city needs an informed and engaged public


Supported by