The Jazz Age Rise And Scandalous Fall Of The Santa Claus Association

Monday, December 24, 2012

Cartoonist Thomas Nast's 1860s depiction of Santa Claus, based on The Night Before Christmas by Clement Clarke Moore, gave us the image we know today. (Wikimedia Commons)

A hundred years ago, when a child in America wrote a note to Santa Claus, it wound up in the "dead letters" room at the post office, never to be delivered. That changed in 1913, when an enterprising New Yorker named John Gluck founded The Santa Claus Association, a charity that matched children's wishes to donors.

Gluck, a Jazz Age publicist, saw the room full of letters to Santa Claus and used them to build an empire.

"He was the first one to say, 'Hey, these letters are out there,'" said Dave Herman, co-founder of The City Reliquary Museum in Williamsburg. "And since he pulled them out of that abyss, they've never gone back."

Soon after Gluck founded the association, silent film stars like Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford came to events and posed for photos. President Warren G. Harding sent telegrams to Gluck with Christmas greetings.

(See the bottom of this page for a slide show of images related to The Santa Claus Foundation.)

At its height, it arranged for 28,000 letters a year to be answered with presents provided by donors. Some of those letters, now on display at the museum, are heart-rending and not that easy to fix with a present. 

This one is from 1914:

Dear Santa Claus,

I heard about your great kindness to poor children, and I hope you will be good to us. I have a little cripple sister and a brother. My little cripple sister is only five, my papa has been out of work all summer. I hope you will answer soon and won’t forget us.

Your little friend,


But why build an empire based on Christmas? Because it was New Yorkers who invented the pop culture version of Santa Claus that we know today.

In the 1860s, New York cartoonist Thomas Nast drew the iconic image of Santa: the rosy-cheeked, red suited, round-in-the-middle man. Before that, there was Sinterklaas, a scary-looking Dutchman in a bishop's hat whose best present was a bag of oranges.

In 1923, New Yorker Clement Clarke Moore wrote ‘Twas The Night Before Christmas, which gave us Santa as a jolly old elf with a sleigh and reindeer. And New York City supplied the setting for the movie, Miracle on 34th Street, the Christmas classic with a climax built on thousands of letters to Santa Claus.

Gluck's great-grand-nephew, Alex Palmer, has been researching the Santa Claus association and supplied most of the artifacts and photos to the exhibit. He said that Gluck, born on Christmas Day in 1874, believed that helping "the kiddies," as he called them, was his destiny.

As the Santa Claus Association grew into a national organization, Gluck and his waxed mustache began palling around with celebrities like New York's playboy mayor, Jimmy Walker. Soon Gluck announced plans to build a monumental headquarters in Midtown Manhattan. It would be a 20-story "Child Wonderland" with a fifty-foot, stained glass window of Santa Claus.

But as Gluck was building the Santa Claus Association, a man named Bird Coler was taking over the city’s Office of Public Welfare. Palmer said Coler and Gluck antagonized each other from the start because of their conflicting visions about the best way to run a charity.

Gluck saw most government aid as ineffectual and bogged down in bureaucracy. He believed it was better to do what he was doing: directly linking donors to the poor.

The politically ambitious Coler, however, looked out on an unregulated, charitable landscape and saw all manner of scams. He made it his mission to bring them to heel, even the largest ones like The Salvation Army and The Santa Claus Foundation.

Commissioner Coler found a problem with Gluck's bookkeeping and organizational structure. Palmer explained that "as Coler starts digging through it, he starts talking with people who are on the masthead, who are supposedly helping run the group, and it becomes increasingly clear that there are not a lot of people besides John Gluck who are calling the shots. Essentially, every role is being handled by him: the treasurer, the secretary, the publicist, the president."

Coler took his findings to the press, along with evidence of Gluck's lavish lifestyle. After that, the post office stopped forwarding children's letters to the Association. Without them, Gluck no longer had the means to run his charity. In 1928, he shut it down.

Today, the post office itself tries to match children who write to Santa Claus with people willing to give them presents. In New York, the program is called Operation Santa.

Herman said the exhibition sums up Gluck and his association in final image.

“A postcard of him, sailing away, out of the New York City harbor, saying farewell to the grimacing bill collectors as he sailed into the distance. So, who knows?” said Herman “Maybe he got away and just started over."

The exhibit on the Santa Claus Association will be at The City Reliquary Museum in Williamsburg until February 10th.

John Gluck, founder of the Santa Claus Association.
Poor family of the 19-teens.
One of the tens of thousands of letters handled by The Santa Claus Association.
Volunteers sort the children's letters to Santa.
Volunteers in high-fashion hats.
Silent film stars Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford bringing publicity to the association.
President Harding sent Christmas wishes to the Association by telegram.
Even enterprising children, like this boy, raised money for Gluck's charity.
Cover of the 1916 Santa Claus Association yearbook, which shows a statue "made of the paper pulp of letters written to Santa Claus."
Rendering of the Midtown Manhattan headquarters of the Santa Claus Association that Gluck intended to build.
New York City Public Welfare Commissioner Bird Coler, the man who investigated Gluck and took him down.
The need Gluck sought to ameliorate was great.
Thank you letter.
John D. Gluck in his office at The Santa Claus Association's peak in the 1920's.


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Comments [2]

lsteinbach from Hong Kong (for now)

That was a great story, but I miss an important epilog for which I have no details. I remember years ago (in the 80's for me) it was a xmas tradition to go to the main post office at Penn Station. There was a room outside of which there was a box of letters to Santa. You could help yourself to one or a few and take them and answer them. I remember on a few occasions, picking up some cards, buying some requested gifts, and way early xmas morning driving around, hoping someone would let me or us into the destination apartment building, and leaving the wrapped packages hanging from doorknobs or on welcome mats.... The post office, i believe discontinued that, and i missed those days. How about a postscript on this.... I hope kids still send letters; I hate to think it's just a matter of forwarding emails! ;)

Dec. 25 2012 08:58 AM
Harriet Shalat from Forest Hills, NY

What a wonderful story and slide show! One thing, though, "A Visit From St. Nicholas" or, as it came to be known, "Twas the Night Before Christmas" originally was published anonomously in the Troy, NY Sentinel on December 23, 1823, having been sent there by a friend of Clement Moore. It was included in his anthology of poems in 1844.

Dec. 24 2012 07:11 PM

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