In the wake of three recent budget bus crashes in the northeast — killing 17 and injuring dozens of others — officials are now wrangling over what kind of regulations to impose on the sprawling industry, which makes 750 million passenger trips a year and accounts for more than 2,000 arrivals and departures every week in New York City.
Among those calling for stricter regulation is former chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board James Hall, who in an interview with Transportation Nation, criticized long-distance bus companies for what he said was a culture of placing profits over safety and ripped the government for letting it happen.
"We haven't seen a commitment by the industry or the government," Hall said. "They have treated the people who ride these buses as second-class citizens and given them second class safety.”
He said fatal bus accidents have left operators relatively untouched by stricter regulations unlike the result of the 2009 crash of a commuter airline in Buffalo, which killed 50 people and led to tighter regulation of short-hop air carriers.
"I'd like to see the federal government take the responsibility for the safe transportation of citizens on motor coaches just as seriously as they take the safe transportation of more affluent citizens on commercial aviation," he said.
Federal lawmakers, who have authority over interstate travel, typically express grave concern following such accidents, Hall said. They sometimes even take the next step and author a serious set of recommendations, such as the U.S. Department of Transportation's 2009 Motor Coach Safety Action Plan. That report inspired The Motorcoach Enhanced Safety Act, which would've mandated safety upgrades like seat belts, stronger windows and fire suppression equipment on long distance buses.
The American Bus Association, a trade group based in Washington, D.C., largely opposed the measure. It estimated the cost of the regulations for new buses at as much as $89,000 per vehicle. A typical new motor coach costs about $500,000. The bill failed.
Association president Peter Pantuso said he supported training bus drivers to a national standard. But he's concerned that mandatory safety features could drive up fares. And low fares are what keep bus operators in business, especially in the burgeoning discount sector.
"The industry is really made up of a lot of very, very small mom-and-pop companies who operate very safely," he said. "And there are a lot of regulations already in place. It’s a matter of enforcement."
Hall was not satisfied with that sentiment: "I have yet to see the American Bus Association be aggressive on the subject of safety," he said. "They're aggressive in regard to insuring the profits of their own membership but they need to be just as aggressive in policing their own industry."
Congress is poised to weigh in with two separate bus safety bills, both of which call for training drivers to a national standard and conducting stricter checks on them. They differ as to how much safety equipment upgrades should be imposed.
And soon the NTSB will release the results of its investigation into the March 12 crash in the Bronx that killed 15 people. The NTSB will also be examining the effectiveness of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, the agency charged with overseeing the tour bus industry and which has been criticized for lax oversight.
Pantuso said his association is in favor of rigorous enforcement of existing rules on driver rest and fitness and inspections of vehicles. But he's wary of over-regulation. He said despite recent crashes, taking a long-distance bus is one of the safest modes of travel in North America — and that should count for something.
Philip White, a bus driver, earns $320 for driving round-trip in two days from New York to Richmond, Virg., a 5-1/2 to seven hour trip each way, depending on traffic. He works for Apex Bus, a company based in Manhattan's Chinatown. Leaning on the steering wheel in his bus, he recently considered what's at stake when it comes to bus safety.
"Everybody on this bus has a wife or husband and kids," he said, "or a mother and father at least. It’s not a joke."