\r\n

", "logo-image": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "source": null, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/1400/1400/l/80/1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "h": 1400, "is-display": true, "crop": "l", "caption": "", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "w": 1400, "id": 153308, "credits-name": "WNYC Studios"}}], "segments": null, "short-title": "Dual Language Schools: Inviting or Exclusive? ", "site-id": 1, "slug": "when-doors-dual-language-school-dont-feel-open-everyone", "slideshow": [], "tags": ["01m184-ps-184m-shuang-wen", "bilingual_education", "dual_language_programs", "education", "integration", "local_wnyc", "school_segregation", "wnyc_app_local"], "tease": "Dual language and bilingual programs can help draw families into schools they otherwise might not attend. But sometimes they keep people away.", "template": "story_default", "title": "When the Doors to A Dual Language School Don't Feel Open to Everyone", "transcript": "", "twitter-headline": "Dual Language Schools: Inviting or Exclusive? ", "twitter-handle": null, "url": "http://www.wnyc.org/story/when-doors-dual-language-school-dont-feel-open-everyone/", "video": null}, "type": "story", "id": 627290}, {"attributes": {"analytics-code": "ExperimentalStory:integration-20-how-could-new-york-city-do-it-better $A0$AD0$V1$Ma$D1$HS0$HC1$B1$SS+School Integration 2.0: How Could New York City Do It Better?+$CSchoolBook$S$T!news!race!politics!education!parenting!local_wnyc!integration!segregation!news_analysis!wnyc_app_local!school_diversity!school_segregation!$APnone$", "appearances": {"producers": [], "authors": [{"image": {"type": "image", "id": "87394"}, "job-title": "Associate Producer, WNYC News", "name": "Yasmeen Khan", "social": [{"contact-string": null, "service": "twitter"}, {"contact-string": null, "service": "instagram"}, {"contact-string": null, "service": "facebook"}], "url": "/people/yasmeen-khan/"}, {"image": {"type": "image", "id": "138812"}, "job-title": "Senior Reporter, WNYC News", "name": "Beth Fertig", "social": [{"contact-string": "", "service": "twitter"}, {"contact-string": "", "service": "instagram"}, {"contact-string": "", "service": "facebook"}], "url": "/people/beth-fertig/"}]}, "audio": null, "audio-available": false, "audio-eventually": false, "audio-duration-readable": null, "audio-may-download": true, "audio-may-embed": true, "audio-may-stream": true, "body": "

We\u2019ve been talking all week about New York City's segregated schools\u00a0\u2014 in fact, all\u00a0school year. And we're not the only ones. A host of other media outlets, educators, parents, City Council members, researchers and education advocates have heightened the conversation around this issue. More so, perhaps, than at any other time since the Civil Rights Era of the 1960s.

\n

Given this heated debate, WNYC wanted to know one thing: how can the city improve the racial and economic integration of its student population?\u00a0

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To answer, we first must face hard truths and have honest conversations about how the city\u00a0got here.

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\"New York City schools are so segregated because we have a race problem and we have a class problem in the United States,\" said David Kirkland, a scholar at NYU's Steinhardt School of Education.

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\"Until we begin to ask difficult questions about how structural racism in the form of economic oppression compromises the quality of schooling in the United States,\" Kirkland added, \"we\u2019re not going to get to integrated schools. Because people who have power and people who have privilege will take that power or use that power and privilege to create educational spaces and opportunities that will give their kids an advantage.\"

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Let's turn to\u00a0another truth: our city's demographics. \u00a0

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WNYC's data news team crunched the numbers for the current school year and found\u00a0half of the city's schools are 90 percent black and Latino. Most\u00a0students at these schools are poor. In fact, 80 percent of the city's elementary school students on the whole are from low-income families. With so few middle class families by comparison, and with white students making up just 15 percent of the school population, the demographics\u00a0make integration difficult.\u00a0

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\"\"
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New York City Students By Race/Ethnicity
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(Noah Veltman / WNYC)
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But in a few of the city's school\u00a0districts, with enough kids from different income levels and races, there is an opportunity to spread them more evenly. It's called\u00a0controlled choice, a mechanism by which\u00a0all schools in a district reflect the overall district demographics by using family socio-economic status. Districts with gentrifying neighborhoods, as we documented as part of a\u00a0contentious rezoning proposal\u00a0in\u00a0Brooklyn's District\u00a013, are ripe for trying controlled choice.\u00a0District 1 in Lower Manhattan already is putting together a proposal.

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But this solution would be irrelevant in most of the city's 32 districts because there's not a big enough mix of kids. In whole slices of the Bronx and Brooklyn, the large majority of\u00a0students are black and Latino, and poor. Short of redrawing district lines more equitably, people we interviewed spoke of the need\u00a0to improve overall economic opportunities for families; provide schools with more resources; shore up early childhood education; and provide students with more male teachers of color and culturally-responsive teaching, since 43 percent of students in the New York City public schools are male children of color.\u00a0

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The city\u00a0is responding to this challenge in some significant ways. Expanding pre-kindergarten has been a hallmark of Mayor Bill de Blasio's administration, and the city has set out to hire 1,000 new male teachers of color\u00a0by 2018.\u00a0

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The city also\u00a0recently\u00a0invited principals citywide\u00a0to join a\u00a0diversity in admissions\u00a0program. They can develop proposals for setting aside seats based on status like income students or English Language skills. Dozens of charter schools\u00a0also consider\u00a0socioeconomic status in admissions.

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Still, scholars we interviewed spoke of an urgent need for a broader vision of desegregation that does not rest squarely on the shoulders of individual school principals, one that recognizes many schools put themselves in financial jeopardy when they aim for socio-economic balance. Some schools would lose their\u00a0Title I status \u2014 which comes with hundreds of thousands of federal dollars \u2014\u00a0if their share\u00a0of low-income students drops below 60 percent. Other schools wouldn't have\u00a0enough affluent families to assist with fundraising.\u00a0

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Finally, we heard from many parents that integration is not a top priority; they simply want better schools. Certainly, equity and improved student achievement is at the heart of school integration. There is no shortage of research showing that segregation by race and class correlates with resource disparities between schools. There are well-documented educational, and economic, harms associated with isolating low-income students of color. There are exceptions to this data, but they are not the rule.

\n

Sixty-two years after Brown v. Board of Education, we still have separate schools that are not equal. Some parent leaders and politicians believe Mayor Bill de Blasio's administration isn't doing enough.

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\u201cEven within integrated neighborhoods you have intensely segregated schools,\u201d City Council member Ritchie Torres said on The Brian Lehrer Show. \u201cSo much of it is a product of public policy, of admissions and zoning decisions. So, to see the Department of Education be so content to preside over a segregated school system, is shameful.\u201d

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But there's a reason why people have been debating solutions for decades: they're hard to implement.

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Parents have historically fought attempts to change the zone lines of desirable schools or to send their children to schools and neighborhoods they don't like. Solving this problem will take a real dedication to engaging communities, long-term planning and bold steps. If New Yorkers want schools that are more integrated, they may have to make sacrifices or weather inconvenience. Change is never easy.

", "channel": "schoolbook", "chunks": {"site-sidebar-top": "", "story": null, "channel-sidebar-top": null, "channel-sidebar-bottom": null, "site-sidebar-bottom": null}, "cms-pk": 627024, "comments-count": 7, "enable-comments": true, "date-line-ts": 1465506000.0, "edit-link": "cms/article/627024", "embed-code": "", "estimated-duration": 0, "headers": {"brand": {"url": "http://www.wnyc.org/blogs/schoolbook", "logo-image": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/schoolbooklogo.png", "source": null, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/400/400/l/80/1/schoolbooklogo.png", "h": 400, "is-display": false, "crop": "l", "caption": "", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/schoolbooklogo.png", "w": 400, "id": 152942, "credits-name": "wnyc"}, "slug": "schoolbook", "title": "SchoolBook"}, "links": [{"url": "http://www.wnyc.org/blogs/schoolbook", "title": "SchoolBook", "item-type": "blog", "slug": "schoolbook"}]}, "header-donate-chunk": null, "image-caption": "", "image-main": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/ps127_third_grade_edited.jpg", "source": null, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/1860/1437/l/80/1/ps127_third_grade_edited.jpg", "h": 1437, "is-display": true, "crop": "l", "caption": "Third-graders at P.S. 127 in Queens, during the first year of the city's \"school pairing\" program to desegregate schools.", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/ps127_third_grade_edited.jpg", "w": 1860, "id": 153332, "credits-name": "courtesy of Lisa Singer"}, "item-type": "article", "item-type-id": 26, "newscast": "", "newsdate": "2016-06-09T17:00:00-04:00", "npr-analytics-dimensions": ["NYPR", "article", "627024", "0", "education,local_wnyc,news,politics,wnyc_app_local", "Yasmeen Khan,Beth Fertig", "education,integration,local_wnyc,news,news_analysis,parenting,politics,race,school_diversity,school_segregation,segregation,wnyc_app_local", "1", "WNYC", "0", "none", "2016-06-09 17:00:00-04:00", "889", "none"], "playlist": [], "podcast-links": [], "producing-organizations": [], "publish-at": "2016-06-09T17:00:00", "publish-status": "published", "show": "", "show-tease": null, "show-title": "", "show-producing-orgs": null, "series": [{"about": {"body": "

New York City is hailed as one of the most important cities in\u00a0the world, yet its public school system is stuck decades behind when it comes to integration and inclusion. What kind of communities do we want, in our children\u2019s schools and our neighborhoods? And what will it take to get there? WNYC is raising the questions and fostering conversations that we hope will lead us all someplace new.

\n

Join the conversation. Share your thoughts in the comments section, or on social media. Call the Brian Lehrer Show when we're talking about this on the air. We want to hear from you!

\n

\u00a0

\n\r\n

", "logo-image": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "source": null, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/1400/1400/l/80/1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "h": 1400, "is-display": true, "crop": "l", "caption": "", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "w": 1400, "id": 153308, "credits-name": "WNYC Studios"}}], "segments": null, "short-title": "", "site-id": 1, "slug": "integration-20-how-could-new-york-city-do-it-better", "slideshow": [], "tags": ["education", "integration", "local_wnyc", "news", "news_analysis", "parenting", "politics", "race", "school_diversity", "school_segregation", "segregation", "wnyc_app_local"], "tease": "We talked to a lot of New Yorkers about their ideas on how to integrate the city's public schools. Here's what we learned, including one key takeaway: It's complicated. ", "template": "story_video", "title": "School Integration 2.0: How Could New York City Do It Better?", "transcript": "", "twitter-headline": "School Integration 2.0: How Could New York City Do It Better?", "twitter-handle": null, "url": "http://www.wnyc.org/story/integration-20-how-could-new-york-city-do-it-better/", "video": "\n
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When I sat down with Nikole Hannah-Jones, a staff writer at the New York Times magazine, to talk about segregation in New York City schools, I thought\u00a0we would have a casual, candid conversation as two black women, working moms with young kids enrolled in Brooklyn public schools. We have both\u00a0written and reported extensively on race, gentrification and the concept of diversity as it applies to New York City so I was\u00a0looking forward to it.

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But, once we started talking, I realized for the first time since finding an elementary school for my son five years ago, that this conversation will never be casual. Candid, maybe. But it is an issue that is far too serious, too critical and too emblematic of systemic racism in America to ever be a casual conversation.

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A little of my story: my husband and I live in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, with our son who identifies as black and biracial. He has gone to\u00a0school out of zone at P.S. 261\u00a0since first grade; it feels\u00a0bittersweet to be talking about his fifth-grade graduation. We chose P.S. 261 because the school we were zoned for, and where he attended pre-K and kindergarten, P.S. 84, was undergoing a change that happens often in gentrifying neighborhoods: new families, mostly white and affluent, change a school in the name of \"progress,\" often marginalizing and displacing\u00a0families who have been there for years. We did not want to participate in that.

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Besides, among the more than 15 public and private schools we looked at, P.S. 261 was what I considered to be the most mixed, racially and economically, of the lot. And it still is, as represented by my son's set of friends. I am grateful for that, and I hope he carries the belief that\u00a0different perspectives grow individual minds and create change \u2014 even more than his multiplication skills \u2014\u00a0into middle school and beyond.

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But we didn't come to this choice easily. And my husband, a white college professor, would likely still argue that resources and quality of education were more important than social development. I don't disagree entirely, but I also think the cultural standard of an \"excellent\"\u00a0education is somewhat\u00a0overrated, especially if you're black. So much emphasis is placed on education as the way out (of what, I often wonder) for black kids, but study after study indicates that even the black children who commit themselves to focused learning, are disproportionately punished, suspended, underestimated and excluded.

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I wasn't concerned that with a professor father and a writer/producer mother my son would not get a\u00a0comprehensive education. More importantly, I wanted him to be around black and brown peers, to cultivate an\u00a0ease of proximity around the culture and race with which he\u00a0identifies, exactly what I did not have during my own childhood.

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I was adopted\u00a0into a white family, raised in an all-white town, and was one of literally a handful, at best, of black people within a 25-mile vicinity. The first time I heard the N-word was from the fifth grade class bully, a white girl who lived in open squalor. She was poor and mean and illiterate, but even that was better than being black. Last week, my son asked me\u00a0if it would be okay for him to use the N-word with his black friends, the way it's used\u00a0with an \"a\" at the end, the way his black friend from a working class family uses it, the way hip-hop artists use it.\u00a0I was struck by his\u00a0sensitivity to both my feelings toward the word, and the cultural context in which it might be acceptable to use.

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That, to my mind, is precisely what a properly diverse, racially conversant school environment fosters.\u00a0

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Still, as I talked with Nikole, I wondered whether I had made the right decision for my son. At one point in the elementary school search, I considered sending our son to a predominantly black and brown\u00a0school. If it came down to it, I argued, I would rather send him to an all-black school than an all-white school with a smattering of black and brown kids. Then we found P.S. 261 with its truly mixed student body and teaching staff, a black woman principal and a very strong curriculum. But how did it get that way? And at what cost to the students at the all black school we turned our backs on? \u00a0 \u00a0

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These are the questions Nikole had too. She made the alternate decision to send her daughter to a predominantly black and brown school, and listening to her explain why made perfect sense to me.\u00a0

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New York City is hailed as one of the most important cities in\u00a0the world, yet its public school system is stuck decades behind when it comes to integration and inclusion. What kind of communities do we want, in our children\u2019s schools and our neighborhoods? And what will it take to get there? WNYC is raising the questions and fostering conversations that we hope will lead us all someplace new.

\n

Join the conversation. Share your thoughts in the comments section, or on social media. Call the Brian Lehrer Show when we're talking about this on the air. We want to hear from you!

\n

\u00a0

\n\r\n

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Efforts to desegregate public schools are gathering steam across the country, prodded by\u00a0both\u00a0grassroots pressure and the federal government. U.S. Education Secretary John King\u00a0said recently that school segregation is \u201ca critical question for our country,\u201d and called on advocates to \u201cseize the moment.\u201d\u00a0

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The conversation certainly has taken hold in New York City. Our series\u00a0Integration 2.0\u00a0looks at possible solutions to persistent division in the school system, and we found one school specially engineered to reflect the city population as a whole, and specifically the Fort Greene, Brooklyn, neighborhood it calls home.

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The student body at\u00a0Community Roots\u00a0Charter School\u00a0currently is 39 percent white,\u00a033 percent black, 20 percent combined Hispanic and Asian, and 8 percent \"other.\" These numbers closely track its school district, District 13, which runs from Downtown Brooklyn to Bedford Stuyvesant. Residents in the district are 40 percent white, 40 percent black and 20 percent Hispanic and Asian, according to recent U.S. Census data.

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By contrast, traditional public elementary schools in the district are much more segregated: only four have white enrollments greater\u00a0than 20 percent.\u00a0P.S. 67, which shares a building with Community Roots, has two white kids out of a total of 228 students.\u00a0

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Why is Community Roots so different? For starters, its co-founders deliberately chose a racially and economically mixed neighborhood, and developed a curriculum in which children discuss race and stereotypes starting in kindergarten. Then they recruited families from nearby public housing projects, Head Start centers and pre-kindergarten programs by pledging to make an integrated school with strong academics.

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But co-founder and principal Alison Keil said getting a diverse mix of kids in the door wasn't enough.

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\"When you have people coming from all different neighborhoods to come to school together, they have no reason or way to get to know each other unless you sort of rip the top off the school and say the school is going to be the community,\" she said.

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This is why Community Roots stays open late for regular get-togethers like\u00a0family\u00a0sports or arts nights, cooking classes for parents, teacher-arranged \"play dates\" for kids who don't know each other well.\u00a0

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Family sports night at Community Roots Charter School in Brooklyn
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(Beth Fertig/WNYC)
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By all measures the school is popular.\u00a0More than 700 students applied for 50 kindergarten seats this year. But that has raised another challenge:\u00a0for all its racial diversity, Community Roots is falling short on economic diversity. Only 25 percent of its students qualify for free lunch, far less than in the surrounding public schools.

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Keil acknowledged the economic balance was off. \u00a0She said the school\u00a0changed its admissions criteria a few years ago so that 40 percent of students must come from nearby Ingersoll, Whitman and Farragut housing projects. She's hoping this will lead to a greater socioeconomic mix.

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Prof. Priscilla Wohlstetter, who teaches\u00a0education policy and social analysis at Teachers College - Columbia University said maintaining an integrated community is a constantly evolving experiment. One that's not so easy to replicate.

\n

\"It\u2019s not something you can impose on a school,\" Wohlstetter said. \"Decisions about how to form a community both for adults and for students really needs to be guided by input from the people who are going to be part of that community.\"

", "channel": "schoolbook", "chunks": {"site-sidebar-top": "", "story": null, "channel-sidebar-top": null, "channel-sidebar-bottom": null, "site-sidebar-bottom": null}, "cms-pk": 624730, "comments-count": 17, "enable-comments": true, "date-line-ts": 1465372800.0, "edit-link": "cms/article/624730", "embed-code": "", "estimated-duration": 402, "headers": {"brand": {"url": "http://www.wnyc.org/blogs/schoolbook", "logo-image": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/schoolbooklogo.png", "source": null, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/400/400/l/80/1/schoolbooklogo.png", "h": 400, "is-display": false, "crop": "l", "caption": "", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/schoolbooklogo.png", "w": 400, "id": 152942, "credits-name": "wnyc"}, "slug": "schoolbook", "title": "SchoolBook"}, "links": [{"url": "http://www.wnyc.org/blogs/schoolbook", "title": "SchoolBook", "item-type": "blog", "slug": "schoolbook"}]}, "header-donate-chunk": null, "image-caption": "", "image-main": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/IMG_5518.JPG", "source": {"url": "", "name": "WNYC"}, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/1860/1395/l/80/1/IMG_5518.JPG", "h": 1395, "is-display": true, "crop": "l", "caption": "Michelle Plair with her third grade daughter Samantha, classmate Rebecca Adeleke and her grandmother Yvonne Sijuwade, and other family members of Community Roots students", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/IMG_5518.JPG", "w": 1860, "id": 152909, "credits-name": "Beth Fertig"}, "item-type": "article", "item-type-id": 26, "newscast": "", "newsdate": "2016-06-08T04:00:00-04:00", "npr-analytics-dimensions": ["NYPR", "article", "624730", "0", "education,local_wnyc,wnyc_app_local", "Beth Fertig", "13k067-ps-067-charlesdorsey,84k536-community-roots-charter-school,84k707-brooklyn-prospect-charter-school,84k789-compass-charter-school,charter_school,education,fort_greene,gentrification,integration,integration2.0,local_wnyc,new_york_city_schools,segregation,wnyc_app_local", "1", "WNYC", "1", "none", "2016-06-08 04:00:00-04:00", "546", "none"], "playlist": [], "podcast-links": [], "producing-organizations": [{"url": "http://www.wnyc.org/", "logo": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/wnyc-logo.png", "source": null, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/344/137/l/80/1/wnyc-logo.png", "h": 137, "is-display": false, "crop": "l", "caption": "", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/wnyc-logo.png", "w": 344, "id": 113188, "credits-name": ""}, "name": "WNYC"}], "publish-at": "2016-06-08T04:00:00", "publish-status": "published", "show": "", "show-tease": null, "show-title": "", "show-producing-orgs": null, "series": [{"about": {"body": "

New York City is hailed as one of the most important cities in\u00a0the world, yet its public school system is stuck decades behind when it comes to integration and inclusion. What kind of communities do we want, in our children\u2019s schools and our neighborhoods? And what will it take to get there? WNYC is raising the questions and fostering conversations that we hope will lead us all someplace new.

\n

Join the conversation. Share your thoughts in the comments section, or on social media. Call the Brian Lehrer Show when we're talking about this on the air. We want to hear from you!

\n

\u00a0

\n\r\n

", "logo-image": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "source": null, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/1400/1400/l/80/1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "h": 1400, "is-display": true, "crop": "l", "caption": "", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "w": 1400, "id": 153308, "credits-name": "WNYC Studios"}}], "segments": null, "short-title": "A Charter School's Mission to Integrate ", "site-id": 1, "slug": "how-one-brooklyn-charter-integrates-intention", "slideshow": [], "tags": ["13k067-ps-067-charlesdorsey", "84k536-community-roots-charter-school", "84k707-brooklyn-prospect-charter-school", "84k789-compass-charter-school", "charter_school", "education", "fort_greene", "gentrification", "integration", "integration2.0", "local_wnyc", "new_york_city_schools", "segregation", "wnyc_app_local"], "tease": "In New York City, most black and Latino students attend school with very few white and Asian students. One charter school wanted do things differently — it's working, most of the time.", "template": "story_default", "title": "How One Brooklyn Charter School Integrates With Intention", "transcript": "", "twitter-headline": "A Charter School's Mission to Integrate ", "twitter-handle": null, "url": "http://www.wnyc.org/story/how-one-brooklyn-charter-integrates-intention/", "video": null}, "type": "story", "id": 624730}, {"attributes": {"analytics-code": "ExperimentalStory:school-integration-teens-weigh $A1$AD117$V0$Ma$D1$HS0$HC1$B1$SS+School Integration 2.0: How Could New York City Do It Better?+$CSchoolBook$S$T!news!diversity!education!integrate!local_wnyc!integration!segregation!wnyc_app_local!07x551urbanassemblybronxacademyletters!$AP/news/news20160608_cms625404_pod.mp3$", "appearances": {"producers": [], "authors": [{"image": {"type": "image", "id": "138812"}, "job-title": "Senior Reporter, WNYC News", "name": "Beth Fertig", "social": [{"contact-string": "", "service": "twitter"}, {"contact-string": "", "service": "instagram"}, {"contact-string": "", "service": "facebook"}], "url": "/people/beth-fertig/"}]}, "audio": "https://www.podtrac.com/pts/redirect.mp3/audio.wnyc.org/news/news20160608_cms625404_pod.mp3", "audio-available": true, "audio-eventually": true, "audio-duration-readable": "1 min", "audio-may-download": true, "audio-may-embed": true, "audio-may-stream": true, "body": "

Students in the group\u00a0IntegrateNYC4Me have spent more than a year exploring segregation and possible solutions. Launched by teacher Sarah Camiscoli and students at the Urban Assembly Bronx Academy of Letters, the group includes kids from high schools around the city.

\n

In a conversation with WNYC, three student activists said they felt the effects of segregation, whether by attending schools that were entirely black and Latino and low income, or in schools with whiter and wealthier populations.

\n

Nashalie Robledo, a tenth grader at Bronx Academy of Letters, said those wealthier schools often had\u00a0more resources and better libraries than schools with low-income kids.

\n

\"If a school is not provided with like resources like A.P. or STEM classes, it would not necessarily mean that they're segregated,\" she said, explaining the distinction. \"It would just like mean that there's inequality.\"

\n

How to rectify that is a difficult dilemma. None of the three students was a\u00a0fan of magnet programs, which have been\u00a0used to attract a wider mix of students. Rather, they said, all schools should be equally desirable.

\n

Another idea is a student diversity council with teens from all over the city. Hebh Jamal, a junior at a Manhattan high school she did not want to identify, said a council could channel great ideas \u201cinto kind of an organized system with committees\u201d and influence actual policies to change.

\n

The students also suggested creating more inclusive curricula, with materials that are less Eurocentric.\u00a0Robledo\u00a0said more ideas should come from students. \"We are the future doctors, teachers, astronauts,\" she stated.

\n

Amera Attalah, also a tenth grader at Bronx Academy of Letters, agreed.

\n

\"Politicians, in general, I think they underestimate us,\" she said.

", "channel": "schoolbook", "chunks": {"site-sidebar-top": "", "story": null, "channel-sidebar-top": null, "channel-sidebar-bottom": null, "site-sidebar-bottom": null}, "cms-pk": 625404, "comments-count": 1, "enable-comments": true, "date-line-ts": 1465372800.0, "edit-link": "cms/article/625404", "embed-code": "", "estimated-duration": 117, "headers": {"brand": {"url": "http://www.wnyc.org/blogs/schoolbook", "logo-image": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/schoolbooklogo.png", "source": null, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/400/400/l/80/1/schoolbooklogo.png", "h": 400, "is-display": false, "crop": "l", "caption": "", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/schoolbooklogo.png", "w": 400, "id": 152942, "credits-name": "wnyc"}, "slug": "schoolbook", "title": "SchoolBook"}, "links": [{"url": "http://www.wnyc.org/blogs/schoolbook", "title": "SchoolBook", "item-type": "blog", "slug": "schoolbook"}]}, "header-donate-chunk": null, "image-caption": "", "image-main": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/IMG_5490.JPG", "source": {"url": "", "name": "WNYC"}, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/1860/1395/l/80/1/IMG_5490.JPG", "h": 1395, "is-display": true, "crop": "l", "caption": "IntegrateNYC4Me students Nashalie Robledo, Hebh Jamal, Amera Attalah and teacher Sarah Camiscoli", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/IMG_5490.JPG", "w": 1860, "id": 152819, "credits-name": "Beth Fertig"}, "item-type": "article", "item-type-id": 26, "newscast": "", "newsdate": "2016-06-08T04:00:00-04:00", "npr-analytics-dimensions": ["NYPR", "article", "625404", "0", "education,local_wnyc,news,wnyc_app_local", "Beth Fertig", "07x551-urban-assembly-bronx-academyletters,diversity,education,integrate,integration,local_wnyc,news,segregation,wnyc_app_local", "1", "WNYC", "1", "none", "2016-06-08 04:00:00-04:00", "280", "none"], "playlist": [], "podcast-links": [], "producing-organizations": [{"url": "http://www.wnyc.org/", "logo": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/wnyc-logo.png", "source": null, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/344/137/l/80/1/wnyc-logo.png", "h": 137, "is-display": false, "crop": "l", "caption": "", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/wnyc-logo.png", "w": 344, "id": 113188, "credits-name": ""}, "name": "WNYC"}], "publish-at": "2016-06-08T04:00:00", "publish-status": "published", "show": "", "show-tease": null, "show-title": "", "show-producing-orgs": null, "series": [{"about": {"body": "

New York City is hailed as one of the most important cities in\u00a0the world, yet its public school system is stuck decades behind when it comes to integration and inclusion. What kind of communities do we want, in our children\u2019s schools and our neighborhoods? And what will it take to get there? WNYC is raising the questions and fostering conversations that we hope will lead us all someplace new.

\n

Join the conversation. Share your thoughts in the comments section, or on social media. Call the Brian Lehrer Show when we're talking about this on the air. We want to hear from you!

\n

\u00a0

\n\r\n

", "logo-image": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "source": null, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/1400/1400/l/80/1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "h": 1400, "is-display": true, "crop": "l", "caption": "", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "w": 1400, "id": 153308, "credits-name": "WNYC Studios"}}], "segments": null, "short-title": "", "site-id": 1, "slug": "school-integration-teens-weigh", "slideshow": [], "tags": ["07x551-urban-assembly-bronx-academyletters", "diversity", "education", "integrate", "integration", "local_wnyc", "news", "segregation", "wnyc_app_local"], "tease": "Most of the debate over desegregating the city's public schools involves parents, school officials and politicians. These three high school students have some ideas, too.", "template": "story_default", "title": "What To Do About New York City Schools: Teens Weigh In", "transcript": "", "twitter-headline": "What To Do About New York City Schools: Teens Weigh In", "twitter-handle": null, "url": "http://www.wnyc.org/story/school-integration-teens-weigh/", "video": null}, "type": "story", "id": 625404}, {"attributes": {"analytics-code": "ExperimentalStory:culturally-responsive-classrooms $A1$AD904$V0$Ms$D1$HS1$HC0$B0$SS+School Integration 2.0: How Could New York City Do It Better?+$C$SThe Brian Lehrer Show$T!city!life!race!urban!education!local_wnyc!integration!integration20!wnyc_app_local!teacher_training!school_segregation!$AP/bl/bl060716epod.mp3$", "appearances": {"producers": [], "authors": []}, "audio": "https://www.podtrac.com/pts/redirect.mp3/audio.wnyc.org/bl/bl060716epod.mp3", "audio-available": true, "audio-eventually": true, "audio-duration-readable": "15 min", "audio-may-download": true, "audio-may-embed": true, "audio-may-stream": true, "body": "

As part of the WNYC series \"Integration 2.0,\"\u00a0Christopher Emdin, associate professor at Columbia University's Teachers College, creator of the #HipHopEd Twitter movement and Science Genius\u00a0B.A.T.T.L.E.S, and now the author of\u00a0For White Folks Who Teach in the Hood... and the Rest of Y'all Too: Reality Pedagogy and Urban Education (Beacon Press, 2016),\u00a0shares his philosophy\u00a0for educating students who are\u00a0often left behind.

\n

He said\u00a0it's important to be culturally responsive to students while not sacrificing academic rigor. And that means having more teachers of color in the classrooms.

\n

\"When you go into a classroom that's operating well, it feels like magic,\" said Emdin. But magicians aren't real wizards; they are dedicated people who have practiced a craft over and over again until it's been perfected. Same with teachers.

\n

\u2192\u00a0Keep the conversation going:\u00a0Christopher Emdin will be speaking at Greenlight Bookstore in Fort Greene, Brooklyn tonight at 7:30pm.\u00a0The event is free, but RSVP here.

\n
\n

\"There are cultural cues that folks are just not reading...\" @chrisemdin on @BrianLehrer

\n\u2014 LaKisha Williams (@MinLaKi) June 7, 2016
\n\r\n

", "logo-image": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "source": null, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/1400/1400/l/80/1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "h": 1400, "is-display": true, "crop": "l", "caption": "", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "w": 1400, "id": 153308, "credits-name": "WNYC Studios"}}], "segments": null, "short-title": "", "site-id": 1, "slug": "culturally-responsive-classrooms", "slideshow": [], "tags": ["city", "education", "integration", "integration2.0", "life", "local_wnyc", "race", "school_segregation", "teacher_training", "urban", "wnyc_app_local"], "tease": "Educator Christopher Emdin shares his philosophy for educating urban kids and makes the case that being \"culturally responsive\" goes a long way in the classroom.", "template": "story_default", "title": "Being Culturally Responsive in Classrooms", "transcript": "", "twitter-headline": "Being Culturally Responsive in Classrooms", "twitter-handle": null, "url": "http://www.wnyc.org/story/culturally-responsive-classrooms/", "video": null}, "type": "story", "id": 626277}, {"attributes": {"analytics-code": "ExperimentalStory:what-new-yorkers-recall-about-school-integration-efforts-earlier-era $A1$AD466$V0$Ma$D1$HS0$HC1$B1$SS+School Integration 2.0: How Could New York City Do It Better?+$CSchoolBook$S$T!news!busing!education!local_wnyc!integration!desegregation!wnyc_app_local!school_segregation!$AP/news/news20160607_cms626217_pod.mp3$", "appearances": {"producers": [], "authors": [{"image": {"type": "image", "id": "87394"}, "job-title": "Associate Producer, WNYC News", "name": "Yasmeen Khan", "social": [{"contact-string": null, "service": "twitter"}, {"contact-string": null, "service": "instagram"}, {"contact-string": null, "service": "facebook"}], "url": "/people/yasmeen-khan/"}]}, "audio": "https://www.podtrac.com/pts/redirect.mp3/audio.wnyc.org/news/news20160607_cms626217_pod.mp3", "audio-available": true, "audio-eventually": true, "audio-duration-readable": "7 min", "audio-may-download": true, "audio-may-embed": true, "audio-may-stream": true, "body": "

In the heyday of the civil rights movement in New York City, top education officials tried to do something about school segregation, acknowledging the separate and unequal education offered students across the five boroughs.

\n

They created five elementary\u00a0school \"pairs,\u201d matching\u00a0up a mostly white school with a mostly black school nearby. There were\u00a0three pairs in Queens, one in Brooklyn and one in Manhattan. Starting in the fall of 1964, the combined student bodies attended one school for the early grades and attended the other for the older grades. Students who couldn't walk to school were\u00a0bused.\u00a0

\n

Each pair involved schools that were less than a mile apart. For three of the pairs, the schools were less than a half-mile apart. Yet, the differences between the schools were vast. City documents showed that in the 1960's most black and Puerto Rican students attended school in\u00a0severely overcrowded buildings, which meant shortened school days for many children. Resources and teachers were not evenly divided either.

\n

Whether the school pairings worked is hard to say. The plan ended after a number of years, at different times for each pair,\u00a0partly because of \"white flight\" to the suburbs and partly because of political\u00a0opposition.\u00a0

\n

White parents picketed outside schools and the Board of Education building. They\u00a0staged a school boycott, and filed lawsuits. New\u00a0private schools popped up.\u00a0

\n

\"We really and truly don't want to switch our schools.\u00a0It has nothing to do with color,\" one white Jackson Heights mother told an ABC reporter.

\n

Editorials\u00a0published that year in the New York Amsterdam News, a black weekly newspaper based in Harlem, implored New Yorkers to give the pairings a chance. Roy Wilkins, then the executive secretary of the\u00a0NAACP, came down hard on opposition to the city's desegregation plans in a 1964 opinion piece:

\n
\n

\"The very homeowners and parents who now speak emotionally of 'not sacrificing' their children for the sake of integration thought nothing of sacrificing Negro children to the segregationist real estate dealers and boards, to the segregationist mortgage and loan companies, to the segregationist banks, to the segregationist 'civic' and neighborhood associations and to the segregationist school board zoning lines that were the natural result.\"

\n
\n

Yet, the pairings were positive for many people. Some white parents supported the plans; children who participated and spoke to WNYC recalled those years as meaningful.

\n

To hear a group of New Yorkers recall their experience participating as students in a school pairing in Queens, click on the player above.

\n

\u00a0

\n

\u00a0

", "channel": "schoolbook", "chunks": {"site-sidebar-top": "", "story": null, "channel-sidebar-top": null, "channel-sidebar-bottom": null, "site-sidebar-bottom": null}, "cms-pk": 626217, "comments-count": 3, "enable-comments": true, "date-line-ts": 1465286400.0, "edit-link": "cms/article/626217", "embed-code": "", "estimated-duration": 466, "headers": {"brand": {"url": "http://www.wnyc.org/blogs/schoolbook", "logo-image": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/schoolbooklogo.png", "source": null, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/400/400/l/80/1/schoolbooklogo.png", "h": 400, "is-display": false, "crop": "l", "caption": "", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/schoolbooklogo.png", "w": 400, "id": 152942, "credits-name": "wnyc"}, "slug": "schoolbook", "title": "SchoolBook"}, "links": [{"url": "http://www.wnyc.org/blogs/schoolbook", "title": "SchoolBook", "item-type": "blog", "slug": "schoolbook"}]}, "header-donate-chunk": null, "image-caption": "", "image-main": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/ps127_third_grade_edited.jpg", "source": null, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/1860/1437/l/80/1/ps127_third_grade_edited.jpg", "h": 1437, "is-display": true, "crop": "l", "caption": "Third-graders at P.S. 127 in Queens, during the first year of the city's \"school pairing\" program to desegregate schools.", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/ps127_third_grade_edited.jpg", "w": 1860, "id": 153332, "credits-name": "courtesy of Lisa Singer"}, "item-type": "article", "item-type-id": 26, "newscast": "", "newsdate": "2016-06-07T04:00:00-04:00", "npr-analytics-dimensions": ["NYPR", "article", "626217", "0", "education,local_wnyc,news,wnyc_app_local", "Yasmeen Khan", "busing,desegregation,education,integration,local_wnyc,news,school_segregation,wnyc_app_local", "1", "WNYC", "1", "none", "2016-06-07 04:00:00-04:00", "416", "none"], "playlist": [], "podcast-links": [], "producing-organizations": [], "publish-at": "2016-06-07T04:00:00", "publish-status": "published", "show": "", "show-tease": null, "show-title": "", "show-producing-orgs": null, "series": [{"about": {"body": "

New York City is hailed as one of the most important cities in\u00a0the world, yet its public school system is stuck decades behind when it comes to integration and inclusion. What kind of communities do we want, in our children\u2019s schools and our neighborhoods? And what will it take to get there? WNYC is raising the questions and fostering conversations that we hope will lead us all someplace new.

\n

Join the conversation. Share your thoughts in the comments section, or on social media. Call the Brian Lehrer Show when we're talking about this on the air. We want to hear from you!

\n

\u00a0

\n\r\n

", "logo-image": {"credits-url": "", "name": "1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "source": null, "url": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/1400/1400/l/80/1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "h": 1400, "is-display": true, "crop": "l", "caption": "", "template": "https://media2.wnyc.org/i/%s/%s/%s/%s/1/SchoolBook_1400X1400_NMxJMNP.png", "w": 1400, "id": 153308, "credits-name": "WNYC Studios"}}], "segments": null, "short-title": "", "site-id": 1, "slug": "what-new-yorkers-recall-about-school-integration-efforts-earlier-era", "slideshow": [], "tags": ["busing", "desegregation", "education", "integration", "local_wnyc", "news", "school_segregation", "wnyc_app_local"], "tease": "Step back in time, to 1964, when New York City tried to desegregate a small group of schools, including two from opposite sides of Astoria Boulevard in Queens. ", "template": "story_default", "title": "What New Yorkers Recall About School Integration Efforts of Earlier Era", "transcript": "", "twitter-headline": "What New Yorkers Recall About School Integration Efforts of Earlier Era", "twitter-handle": null, "url": "http://www.wnyc.org/story/what-new-yorkers-recall-about-school-integration-efforts-earlier-era/", "video": null}, "type": "story", "id": 626217}, {"attributes": {"analytics-code": "ExperimentalStory:what-eric-holder-learned-attending-segregated-schools $A1$AD113$V0$Ma$D1$HS0$HC1$B1$SS+School Integration 2.0: How Could New York City Do It Better?+$CSchoolBook$S$T!news!politics!education!local_wnyc!integration!segregation!integration20!wnyc_app_local!$AP/news/news20160607_cms626356_pod.mp3$", "appearances": {"producers": [], "authors": []}, "audio": "https://www.podtrac.com/pts/redirect.mp3/audio.wnyc.org/news/news20160607_cms626356_pod.mp3", "audio-available": true, "audio-eventually": true, "audio-duration-readable": "1 min", "audio-may-download": true, "audio-may-embed": true, "audio-may-stream": true, "body": "

As part of our series on school integration this week, we're learning about a 1964 plan that paired two schools in Queens: P.S. 127 in East Elmhurst and P.S. 148 in Jackson Heights.

\n

An alumnus of both of these elementary schools is former Attorney General Eric Holder. He attended the schools just before the desegregation experiment, and\u00a0got a taste of what it was like to attend both \u2014 when they were segregated.

\n

He started out at P.S. 127, near his home in East Elmhurst, but transferred to the mostly white P.S. 148 in fifth grade as part of a program for gifted students.

\n

\"I ended up having kind of a dual existence,\" he said. \"My time at 148 was something I really treasured. I made great friends. I was easily accepted. I had sleepovers with my friends at P.S. 148.\"

\n

And he learned how to navigate being one of a few black people in a mostly white environment.

\n

But, he said,\u00a0\"I felt lonely every now and again.\"

\n

Who better to witness the segregation between two schools than a student who has experienced both. Home was always East Elmhurst to Holder, and his friends from P.S. 127 became his lifelong friends. But he said that he knew he was being to exposed to new people, and a new culture, in a way that his friends at P.S. 127 were not.\u00a0

\n

\"One world white, one world black,\" said Holder.\u00a0\"And there was really not much interaction between the two worlds.\"

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Click on the player above to listen. (Music by Hannis Brown)

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New York City is hailed as one of the most important cities in\u00a0the world, yet its public school system is stuck decades behind when it comes to integration and inclusion. What kind of communities do we want, in our children\u2019s schools and our neighborhoods? And what will it take to get there? WNYC is raising the questions and fostering conversations that we hope will lead us all someplace new.

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Join the conversation. Share your thoughts in the comments section, or on social media. Call the Brian Lehrer Show when we're talking about this on the air. We want to hear from you!

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Click the player above to hear our story about a renewed effort to better integrate schools in one part of Manhattan. Click here\u00a0to see how new admissions rules could change where students\u00a0in District 1 go to school.

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It's no secret that the New York City public schools are deeply segregated. Throughout the five boroughs, most black and Latino students attend schools where they are the overwhelming majority, according to both a much-cited\u00a02014 UCLA study\u00a0and more current city data. Beyond the social implications of racial and ethnic segregation, there is inequity: most of the predominantly black and Latino\u00a0schools have high concentrations of low-income students, fewer highly qualified teachers and lower test scores.

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In recent years, pockets of New Yorkers have proposed new solutions to counteract the divides that have gotten worse in the last decade. New York City\u00a0Mayor Bill de Blasio on Friday\u00a0told WNYC's\u00a0Brian Lehrer that he wanted a more integrated system.

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\"I think we finally have the tools we need to do this on a much more extensive level,\u201d he said.

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It seems\u00a0to be a moment when elected officials, educators and families are looking to do things differently in New York, perhaps the most concerted school integration effort since the 1960s. In our week-long series Integration 2.0, we highlight a proposal to better mix students within one\u00a0school district,\u00a0visit\u00a0a\u00a0school that's taking extra steps\u00a0to recruit and support a variety of families,\u00a0hear from New Yorkers who participated in\u00a0integration experiments in 1964; they have some thoughts worth hearing.

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And, finally, we'll share another point of view: integration is not a goal unto itself for many New Yorkers who overwhelmingly say they want better school options in their neighborhoods. Period. For some, integration is a path towards school improvement but not for all.

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Of\u00a0the ideas concerned with changing school admission rules, the most ambitious involves an entire school district, District 1, which includes the East Village, part of Chinatown and the Lower East Side. And that's where our series begins.

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Parent leaders in District 1 are hoping to win approval from Schools Chancellor Carmen Fari\u00f1a to try a new form of admissions. Their goal is to prevent schools from enrolling too many poor and at-risk children, by bringing in kids from higher income levels, too.\u00a0Various studies have shown kids from low-income families do better academically when they're mixed with wealthier peers.

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To accomplish this, District 1 has proposed\u00a0an admissions system called controlled choice that's still being finalized. It's been used in Cambridge, Massachusetts, as well as other cities around the country. Parents rank their preferred schools. The city would then consider whether their children qualify for free or reduced priced lunch when assigning incoming kindergarten students to every school.

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In District 1, where about three quarters of the students qualify for free lunch, this means every school would aim for a similar proportion of new kindergarten students. By distributing students more evenly, supporters believe there would also be greater racial diversity, and maybe more involved parents, more funds and more stability in the teaching staff wold follow. In other words, the schools would get\u00a0better.

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Some parents in New York City's School District 1 have proposed a system known as controlled choice in order to better integrate its schools. The school district includes the East Village, part of Chinatown and the Lower East Side of Manhattan. The controlled choice model would tinker with admissions rules so that every\u00a0elementary school better\u00a0reflected the economic variety of the district as a whole.

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Here's how it would work:

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\"District
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The boundaries of NYC School District No. 1
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District 1 has about 5,700 public elementary school students enrolled this school year. They are 50 percent Latino, 18 percent Asian, 15 percent black and 15 percent white.

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But the\u00a0individual schools are not evenly integrated. One \u2014 P.S. 184 \u2014 is overwhelmingly Asian, for example, while another, the East Village Community School, is\u00a0mostly white.

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In order to smooth out the discrepancies so that\u00a0each school looks more like\u00a0the district as a whole, which is what controlled choice aims to achieve, 28 percent of the district's students would have to switch schools.

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But the city can't use race in admissions, following a 2007 U.S. Supreme Court Ruling.\u00a0So the Community Education Council for District 1 has proposed using socioeconomic status as a proxy instead.\u00a0

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Under the proposal, parents would rank schools they wanted their children to attend, but the city would also consider whether the students qualified for free or reduced priced lunch when assigning incoming kindergarten students to different schools.

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Right now, 77.6 percent of elementary school students in District 1 live in poverty. But again, the demographics of individual schools vary. Some schools have a poverty rate of less than 50 percent, while others see rates higher than 95 percent.

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For each school to have the same poverty rate, 10.9 percent of students would have to change schools, significantly fewer than when equalizing the schools' racial makeup. To be clear, controlled choice would not require enrolled students to change schools; the proposal would apply only to incoming kindergarten students.

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Even if controlled choice was adopted in District 1, it's an open question whether it would work elsewhere in New York City. For one, the district is one of the smallest, encompassing just a couple of neighborhoods. Neighboring District 2 stretches from E. 100th Street to Battery Park.\u00a0

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And District 1's elementary student makeup mirrors citywide averages racially and economically pretty closely. Most districts don\u2019t, and several have populations of poor and minority students out of proportion to the city as a whole. If those districts balanced their schools the way that District 1 parents are proposing, the changes wouldn\u2019t make their elementary schools match the citywide average.

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Methodology:

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We looked at schools with any elementary school grades (K-5) and no students in grades 9 through 12 in the 2015-2016 school year.\u00a0This includes K-8 schools. This data is from the New York City Department of Education's \"Demographic Snapshot.\"\u00a0

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We excluded\u00a0charter schools, District 75 Special Education schools, and citywide gifted and talented schools\u00a0because they would not enter into the mix if a\u00a0district implemented controlled choice in the way it is proposed for District 1. As a group, charter elementary schools have a lower percentage of students in poverty (70.9 percent compared to 80.7 percent in traditional public schools) and a higher percentage of black students (54.6 percent compared to 22.2 percent in traditional public schools).

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New York City is hailed as one of the most important cities in\u00a0the world, yet its public school system is stuck decades behind when it comes to integration and inclusion. What kind of communities do we want, in our children\u2019s schools and our neighborhoods? And what will it take to get there? WNYC is raising the questions and fostering conversations that we hope will lead us all someplace new.

\n

Join the conversation. Share your thoughts in the comments section, or on social media. Call the Brian Lehrer Show when we're talking about this on the air. We want to hear from you!

\n

\u00a0

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