ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:
With so much attention on the violence in Syria, it's easy to forget that this all began about a year ago with a nonviolent protest movement. In some parts of Syria, the protests still continue. Other activists have managed to escape and assemble in cities around the region - Istanbul, Cairo, Doha, Beirut. NPR's Kelly McEvers met one brother-and-sister team that's trying to spark change through our favorite medium, radio.
KELLY MCEVERS, BYLINE: We can't tell you where Hussam and Rania live, but we can tell you they used to live in Syria's capital, Damascus. Hussam was a creative director at a small marketing company he founded. Rania was the morning host for a radio station owned by the cousin of Syria's president. Then came the protests all around Syria. Then came the phone call.
RANIA: The radio station called me, at home, and they said, Rania, we have to say the truth. I told them, like, what's the truth? And they say, the truth, that there is no demonstration in Syria.
MCEVERS: Rania maintained it wasn't her job to talk about politics on the air, but still, her bosses persisted.
RANIA: They went through my Facebook...
MCEVERS: And printed it out. They saw that she was sympathetic to the protesters. Her own colleagues started interrogating her in person.
RANIA: They told me: You have to tell us. Are you with the regime, or you are against the regime? Because if you are against the regime, we going to, like, deal with you in a different way.
MCEVERS: We'll treat you like we treated your friend, they said, another journalist who was arrested. In Syria, human-rights groups say thousands of activists have been arrested and tortured in jail. Rania quit her job and fled the country. So did most of her family. She and her brother and a small team of activists launched an Internet radio station at the end of last year.
(SOUNDBITE OF RADIO BROADCAST)
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: (Foreign language spoken)
MCEVERS: They call it New Start Radio. In the mornings, they do news, often reports from citizen journalists positioned in hot spots around Syria. Much of the time, these are the only journalists who are there to tell the story. Instead of the seemingly endless parade of video footage of the dead and dying on TV, Rania says the language used in these radio reports makes listeners feel the news and empathize.
RANIA: Imagine that now there is 25 families have been killed. Imagine that there is now 25 mother will sleep today without their sons. Imagine today that there is so many men were sleeping on the streets because they have no more homes.
MCEVERS: Rania says she hopes not only will Syrians outside Syria get the news, but Syrians inside Syria will get the full story of a protest movement that was met by a brutal government crackdown, even though now, that protest movement in some places has turned into a violent uprising. These days, the coverage of Syria is either on state-owned or state-controlled media, which claim there are no protests, only armed terrorists, or its coverage on Arabic satellite TV channels like Al-Jazeera and Al Arabiya, which increasingly focus on the violence in places like Homs.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
UNIDENTIFIED GROUP: (Singing in foreign language)
MCEVERS: For much of the day, New Start Radio plays music, slogans, poetry, skits, all of them about revolution and freedom and dignity. There's an old-time-y feeling to it all, as if it's trying to recreate a world that never existed. Right now, the radio site reaches only a few thousand people. The real goal, says Shakib al-Jabri, another Syrian activist who's founded a newspaper, is to get on the FM dial.
SHAKIB AL-JABRI: We need to set up radio stations on the border and broadcast into Syria. I think this would be a very powerful way of getting our message through.
MCEVERS: Al-Jabri says the problem with all these media projects run by Syrian exiles is there's no clear and unified vision. That's mainly because they're new at this stuff. Unlike opposition activists who worked underground for years before the fall of dictators in places like the Soviet Union or Indonesia, young Syrians have never worked with the kinds of institutions that could help them with funding, training and equipment. So, Jabri says, they're starting from scratch and doing it themselves.
Still, as they light another cigarette and stir another coffee, Rania and Hussam say they hope the fact that Syria's uprising has taken so much longer than the other Arab uprisings is teaching Syrian activists how to organize.
HUSSAM: We have to build a new country and it's a long, long, long, long, long and hard way to make a new country.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: (Foreign language spoken)
MCEVERS: Kelly McEvers, NPR News. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright National Public Radio.